Catalogue From Bibliography

Research article

Online Access to the Catalogue and Bibliography of Cartographic Materials of the National Library of Poland (NLP)


Access to information about cartographic materials in the National Library of Poland has been improved by new functionalities intended to keep up with users’ new needs and technological trends. From mid-January 2010 on readers of maps and atlases kept in the library can find catalogue descriptions of these materials through the special website. Three different forms of access to descriptions of cartographic materials are available on the website: (1) Catalogues/Catalogues online — database search in the central computer catalogue of the National Library of Poland (NLP); (2) Bibliographies online. Cartographic documents [download .pdf files — in Polish]; (3) Bibliographies online. Cartographic documents [search database] — access to the database in the MAK system containing items from the published bibliography of cartographic materials.

Key Words

online access; cartographic materials; National Library of Poland

The Purpose and Functions of the Catalogue and Bibliography

The main purpose of the catalogue and bibliography of maps, atlases and globes published in Poland is to serve vast circles of users: library employees, researchers, students and other readers interested in finding a certain map, e.g. travelers and hobbyists. The selection of search tools available to the reader is just as important here as the choice of description standards which are used by a librarian who wants to cater to present needs and be comprehensible to all potential users.

In order for a catalogue and a bibliography (offline or online) to be able to serve its purpose, the descriptions must fulfil two functions: explicit identification of the described document and conveying information about the document as well as its content. The first function is fulfilled by determining the description entity and the selection of its elements, such as the title, the author, the edition, mathematical data, the publisher’s address, remarks, and their scrupulous interpretation. This is a fundamental objective of every bibliographer. The second function — conveying information about the factual value of a document — is fulfilled mainly by adding remarks which should not only be supplementary and explanatory to the elements of the bibliographic description identified earlier, but also should describe the content of the graphic part of the document and possibilities for its usage, for instance in research and education.

Since the beginning of the 21st century, our catalogue and bibliography have been under revision. First, we revised the rules of cartographic cataloguing in order to adapt them to the NLP library catalogue system and format for books and periodicals which had been introduced earlier. A provisional instruction by Aniela Drozdowska[1] was replaced by the Polish norm, and later — step by step — we created methodological principles for cataloguing maps and atlases.

Methodological Principles of Creating a Catalogue and a Bibliography

Since 2001 all the bibliographical descriptions of maps and atlases in the National Library of Poland have been made according to Polish Standard PN-N-01152-5 Bibliographic Description. Cartographic Materials,[2] whose concept has been elaborated by the staff of the NLP: Maria Janowska from the Centre of Standardisation of the Bibliographic Institute and Lucyna Szaniawska from the Map Department. Our starting point was the norm prepared under the auspices of the International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions ISBD (CM): International Standard Bibliographic Description for Cartographic Materials published in 1987 and its next edition (Revised Version 1999).[3] The most important recent instructions for describing cartographic materials in Poland include:

  1. Format MARC 21 rekordu bibliograficznego wraz z zasobem: adaptacja dla systemu MAK: wersja 2008 [= MARC 21 Format for Bibliographic and Holdings Data: Adaptation for the MAK system] / Edited and elaborated by Agnieszka Brachfogel, Zofia Żurawińska; in collaboration with Bożena Bartoszewicz-Fabiańska, Paulina Czyżewicz. Warszawa: Biblioteka Narodowa, 2008;

  2. Opis książki w formacie MARC 21: zasady tworzenia rekordu bibliograficznego i rekordu egzemplarza w systemie INNOPAC w Bibliotece Narodowej [= Book Description in MARC 21 Format: Rules to create bibliographic and item record in the INNOPAC System in the National Library] / Elaborated by Zofia Byczkowska. Warszawa: Biblioteka Narodowa, 2002;

  3. Format MARC 21 rekordu bibliograficznego dla dokumentu kartograficznego [online] [= MARC 21 Format for bibliographic record for Cartographic Materials — online] / Elaborated by Grażyna Dudzicka, Dorota Gazicka, Irena Grzybowska. [Warszawa]: Centrum NUKAT, July 2007 (available on the Internet);

  4. Format MARC 21 rekordu bibliograficznego. Dokumenty ikonograficzne. Wersja 2008 [= MARC 21 Format for bibliographic record for Visual Materials. Version 2008] / Elaborated by Agata Pietrzak. Warszawa: Biblioteka Narodowa, 2008.

In preparing some of the description formats, a number of other publications proved to be very helpful, such as the rules and applications contained in the Anglo-American Cataloguing Rules (Second Edition, 1988, chapter 3, Cartographic Materials) and explanations and examples included in the Handbook for AACR 2 Explaining and Illustrating Anglo-American Cataloguing Rules (Second Edition; American Library Association, 1988). In certain cases, international rules compiled by and published on the IFLA web site since 2004 as the ISBD(CM) International Standard Bibliographic Description for Cartographic Materials (200x Revision), were also taken into consideration. Furthermore, bibliographic descriptions of atlases may be based on another standard: PN-91-N-01152-8 Opis bibliograficzny. Stare druki [= Bibliographic Description. Early Printed Books], published 1994 and Format MARC 21 rekordu bibliograficznego dla starych druków [online] [= MARC 21 Format for Bibliographic Description. Early Printed Books] Elaborated by Halina Mieczkowska. [Warszawa]: Centrum NUKAT, December 2007 (available on the Internet).

Figure 1 shows how the rules were applied to the standard description scheme. It shows that the third level of detail is used, which includes all the elements allowed for in the Polish Standard. Every description is preceded by a password created from a geographic name which most closely denotes the map’s range, plus the scale of the dominating part of object. When recording map data the abbreviations used are in accordance with Polska NormaPN-85/N-01158Skróty wyrazów i wyrażeń w opisie bibliograficznym [= Polish Standard PN-85/N-01158 Abbreviations of words and phrases in bibliographic description], which has been in force since 1987. The standard does not cover descriptive phrases used quite often by Polish authors of maps and atlases and words generally connected with their content. Therefore, correct bibliographic description of cartographic materials required the introduction of the following abbreviations: aktual. [update], dł. geogr. [longitude], dystr. [distribution], geogr. [geographic], hydrogr. [hydrographic], kartogr. [cartographic], krajozn. [heritage tourism], płd. [southern], szer. geogr. [latitude], tech. [technical], topogr. [topographic], turyst. [tourist], kolor. [colour], zdj. terenowe [field survey]. Also Latin abbreviations, for example ‘ca’ or ‘et al.’, were standardized. In the mathematical data field international abbreviations for geographic directions (N, S, W, E) are used, which are functional in the MARC 21 format.

Fig. 1

Standard description scheme of a cartographic object in the ‘Bibliography of Cartographic Materials’.

In order to ensure uniformity of the descriptions, many practical problems had to be solved. Because of the fact that in the INNOPAC database of the NLP abbreviations taken from Latin are applied, such as ca, s.l., s.n., et al., Latin words such as verso and recto were also introduced. At present an entry may read, for example, ‘Verso: tekst turyst.-krajozn.’ [Verso: tourist. text].

The Catalogue and Bibliography of the Cartographic Materials in the NLP

(1) Since 2002 all bibliographic descriptions of maps and atlases were entered in MARC 21 format and added to a computer catalogue database installed on the NLP server, which operates on INNOPAC belongs to the Map Department. In the OPAC (open public access catalogue) a special user version of the record is shown under ‘catalogues’ in the NLP online catalogue, which facilitates quick access.

The less accessible MARC 21 version is also available for use by those librarians who are familiar with the format. The entity of a bibliographic record is an independently published cartographic material, which is most often identified by the publisher by assigning the ISBN number. The materials are registered on the so-called first level of description and for that reason the series of maps and multi-sheet maps as a whole are not described in the bibliography but their sheets which appear under their own title.[4] Their records are connected with an additional password of a uniform title put under a label ‘Seria’ [Series] (in OPAC) or in the data field 830 (in MARC 21), e.g. ‘Mapa topograficzna Polski 1:50 000. Ukł. 1992 ; M-43-6-B’ [Topographical Map of Poland 1:50 000. System 1992; M-43-6-B].

Figure 2 shows an example of a map description of the Grójec environs published in 2004. In this manner, almost 12,000 maps and atlases from the collection of the Map Department were described in the database.

Fig. 2

A screenshot of an exemplary tourist map from the “CATALOGUES” screen.

In addition to the version of the descriptions available online under ‘catalogues’, the ‘Bibliography of Cartographic Materials’ = ‘Bibliografia Dokumentów Kartograficznych’ (Polish abbreviation: BDK) was prepared by the NLP Map Department and published in the years 2005–2008 biannually as part of the current Polish national bibliography. Seven volumes were published: 2002 No. 1, 2002 No. 2, 2003 No. 1, 2003 No. 2, 2004 No. 1–2, 2005 No. 1–2, 2006 No. 1–2. The next issue, 2007 No. 1–2, was not published in print, but was converted to a .pdf file and put on the NLP website under the heading ‘special bibliographies’. The BDK registers all types of cartographic materials (maps, atlases, globes)[5] on the basis of copies which are sent as a legal deposit to the NLP by publishers.

The printed version descriptions were alphabetically organised by geographical entries and then by map scales in descending order. Each issue of the BDK was accompanied by seven indexes: map titles, atlas titles, corporate names, personal names, series of sheets, subjective entries, ISBN number.

Index sheets constituted an additional multi-sheet maps search tool.[6] Considering the fact that vast areas of the country have not yet been sheeted, displaying the availability or lack of maps is very important information for a reader. Index maps used to be prepared (and they still are for the .pdf file version) in cooperation with the Head Office of Geodesy and Cartography and the Hydrographic Office of the Polish Navy, which supervise topographic, hydrographic, environmental and sea navigation maps production.

(2) In 2009, the printed version was superseded by an electronic .pdf file, which is commonly used for displaying texts on the Internet. Up to now, the following new ‘BDK’ issues have been created: 2007 No. 1–2 and 2009 (January–December, containing mainly descriptions from the years 2008–2009). Maps and atlases which were not registered in the previous issues but were sent to the NLP until the end of 2009, were also added.

Besides the medium of publication, quite a few other changes have been introduced, including a new configuration of the main part of the bibliography number. For the first time a bibliographic descriptions arrangement has been introduced which is compatible with the UDC standard subdivisions order. Symbols to be used in the bibliography were derived from UDC tables published in Uniwersalna Klasyfikacja Dziesiętna: publikacja nr UDC-PO58 autoryzowana przez Konsorcjum UKD nr licencji UDC-2005/06. Wydanie skrócone dla bieżącej bibliografii narodowej i bibliotek publicznych [= Universal Decimal Clasification: Edition No. UDC-PO58 authorised by UDC Consortium License No. UDC-2005/06. Short edition for national bibliography and public libraries]. The simplified list of UDC symbols is presented near the introduction. Only within divisions and subdivisions are the descriptions sorted in alphabetical order according to the names of geographical entries (Figure 3).

Fig. 3

An outline of UDC divisions and subdivisions applied to the BDK.

An additional change is the possibility to retrieve a data field 653 Index Term — Uncontrolled entry from the INNOPAC database, by means of which it is possible to determine more efficiently than previously (by the field 651 Subject Added Entry — Geographic Name subfield ‘a’ ‘Geographic name’) the range of the entire object described. In this way supplementary information could be added to names, e.g. Bytnica (okolice [= environs]) — which means that the map represents the town with its unspecified surroundings. Illustration of another written form are elements of sheets description of multi-sheet maps — e.g. ‘Brzeźnica (gmina [= commune])’ means that the map represents the area of the commune together with the seat of its authorities, and ‘Zamość’ indicates a general plan of the town. Other elements of the map and atlas description have been left unchanged (Figure 4).

Fig. 4

A screenshot of a description of exemplary maps from the BDK screen in a .pdf file.

Together with the introduction of the .pdf format, the BDK introduced new presentation and navigation tools connected with this format. One of them is the possibility to use bookmarks during the search of the BDK number. The .pdf file functions in a similar way as the tables of contents in books do and after clicking on them they refer the reader straight to particular parts of the bibliography: divisions and subdivisions of UDC and particular indexes.

The electronic form of the bibliography contains all indexes previously included in the printed version, i.e. map titles index, atlas titles index, causative institutions index, personal name index, ISBN numbers index, series sheets index and subject headings index. To the indexes themselves some new search tools have been added, namely links between each description number given in an index entry and the description to which the entry pertains. For example, in the map title index, right after the title ‘Białystok : plan miasta 1:17 000’ the description number has been marked with purple, and by clicking on it the user goes directly to the full description of the map.

As stated before, the characteristic feature of the Polish ‘Bibliography of Cartographic Materials’ was the fact that it included printed index maps. Moreover, in 2009 sheet tablets for land maps of the following series were included: Mapa hydrograficzna Polski 1:50 000, Mapa sozologiczna Polski 1:50 000, Mapa topograficzna Polski 1:10 000 as well the series of many scales charts: International Charts Series and Morskie Mapy Nawigacyjne. The images of indexes were put in jpeg format (Figure 5). After each display of a series title in a full bibliographic description, links to a proper sheet tablet series were added.[7] In the near future we plan to add links to each cell symbolising a map sheet in the index to its bibliographic description.

Fig. 5

A screenshot from an index of Mapa hydrograficzna Polski 1:50 000.

A file in .pdf is maybe not the most modern search tool, but it has two very important advantages: it is relatively cheap in production, it does not require any special tools for text searching within a bibliographic number and it provides the reader with an opportunity to print out some material derived from the published editions up to 2007, for his own needs.

(3) The third way of accessing the ‘Bibliografia Dokumentów Kartograficznych = Bibliography of Cartographic Materials’ is the database of the National Library of Poland in the MAK system, which was installed on NLP staff’s computers in the end of the 1980s. Since 1991 ‘Przewodnik Bibliograficzny’ [= Bibliographic Guide] has been working with this system, cataloguing all the books published in Poland, among which there were also maps and atlases. Cartographic materials were, in fact, described just like books; it was their first current registration. Since 1998 the MAKWWW system has been in operation. It has been reprogrammed to be used on the web page. Since 2002, it has been used provide access to many different library databases, e.g. the national bibliography and special bibliographies. Among others there is a database: cartographic materials. It was installed on 20 October 2008 and it contains 5,630 bibliographic records. Untill May 2010 it was visited by 9,820 readers from outside the NLP building. Naturally, there are typical choice options which serve as search tools and which are used in other library collections as well, such as books, periodicals, journal articles, electronic and audio documents.

Basic searches can be made by selecting the author’s name, the title, the keyword, the subject access entry, the publisher’s name, international number (ISBN or ISSN), the number of the bibliography item, the year of publication and the series title. Another method, which is actually a form of advanced search, makes it possible to narrow down a search area with the help of several (up to five) criteria, joined by the conjunction ‘or’ and ‘and’ (Figure 6). Another way of advanced search consists of choosing an entry in the index combined with the possibility of replacing the ending of a word with an asterisk.

Fig. 6

Various methods of advanced search in the cartographic materials database in the MAK system.

The interface for bibliographic descriptions in the MAKWWW database for cartographic materials has a very clear typeface when compared to other similar databases in the leading European libraries (Figure 7). Because the only documents described are maps and atlases, the search for maps on a certain subject or maps of a certain area is very fast and precise. A similar search in the central database, to which over one million four hundred thousand descriptions of library entities have been added without the use of an advanced search query, renders too many results. For example, when one enters ‘Warszawa’ into the central database as the beginning of the title, the catalogue returns 1,733 hits, among which only a few concern maps — most of the hits concern books, guides, albums, prints, etc. If one enters ‘Warszawa’ as a subject in a subject entry, the result is even more useless — over 10,000 hits.[8] However, a similar search query by means of an advanced search, with the delimiter ‘DOK.KART.’ [= MAP in an English catalogue interface] returns 290 to 608 hits. In the MAKWWW database 48 titles (tytuł in Polish) starting with the phrase ‘Warszawa’ and 203 subject entries (hasło_przedm in Polish) with the subject ‘Warszawa’ will be found.

Fig. 7

Screenshot with a bibliographic description of a tourist map of the Karkonosze Mountains.

Unfortunately, the inconvenience of this database is that only maps and atlases produced since 2000 have been included at present; however, a retrospective inclusion of cartographic materials published after World War II is being planned together with cartographic materials published since 1928, which is the date when ‘Przewodnik Bibliograficzny’ first started.

A marginal remark: the criteria of advanced search are far more challenging for a reader than the previous tools. For example, if one searches something by means of the keyword ‘Warszawa’ and limits the search to the type of document ‘DOK.KART.’ [MAP in the English Catalogue interface] by means of the delimiter ‘and’, one will get 7,870 hits. In the MAKWWW database the corresponding outcome is 301 hits. This shows that the search types have been incorrectly used. Using the name ‘Warsaw’ as a keyword, one must be aware of the fact that the hits will include not only appearances in the title (and not only at the first position) but also in the place of publication, the place of printing, in the corporate name and, in the notes, cartographic material which does not represents Warsaw at all (Figure 8).

Fig. 8

Advanced search results by means of the keyword ‘Warszawa’.

The work on providing access to online descriptions of cartographic materials in the databases of the NLP catalogue and bibliography has greatly accelerated this year. However, there are still many years to come before the library staff will be able to say: ‘it is done’ and the entire, still growing collection will be catalogued. It is also necessary to add some modern navigators presenting images of high resolution maps. Still, by providing online access to data, the NLP has joined the ranks of other leading European libraries. It is only fairly recently that many European libraries began discussing the option of moving from analogue to online bibliographies of cartographic materials.

Some countries, such as France in 2000 and Denmark in 2004, ceased printed publication altogether, but there are still some countries, like Germany, which print map and atlas bibliographies.[9] As a matter of fact, however, almost every library has a collection of catalogues available online or they burn them on CD’s in order to be able to sell them. In Poland, it appears, returning to the printed form is neither possible nor justified, because every reader can download the file and print it.



Aniela Drozdowska, Przepisy tymczasowe katalogowania i inwentaryzowania zbiorów kartograficznych. [= Project of instruction for cataloguing and holding cartographic collections]. ‘Biuletyn Geograficzny’. Instytut Geografii PAN, z. 11, 1954.


Polska Norma PN-N-01152-5 Opis bibliograficzny. Dokumenty kartograficzne. Warszawa: Polski Komitet Normalizacyjny, 2001.


New version of this norm: IFLA International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions ISBD(CM):International Standard Bibliographic Description for Cartographic Materials. 200x Revision. Prepared by the ISBD(CM) Working Group for approval by the Standing Committees of the IFLA Cataloging Section.


Basic information on the manner of map and atlas registration in ‘Bibliography of Cartographic Materials’ is to be found in each issue of the bibliography. It is the subject of Jerzy Ostrowski’s review ‘Bibliography of Cartographic Materials’ in Polish Cartographical Review, Vol. 39, 2007, No. 3, p. 271–273.


The Bibliography does not contain a description of the cartographic materials in electronic form, because they are registered together with other electronic documents in addition to ‘Bibliographic Guide’ entitled ‘Bibliografia Dokumentow Elektronicznych’ [= Bibliography of Electronic Resources]. However, the electronic materials accompanying the printed cartographic materials are taken into consideration.



A similar method, although realised by means of other technical solutions, was used by Pan´stwowy Instytut Geologiczny [= Polish Geological Institute]. Textual bibliographical descriptions have been connected with the indexes available on the institute webpage with links, which enabled accessing information about map sheets.


Since the beginning of 2001, research on improving the utility of a subjective entry has been conducted; among others Field 655 Index Term — Genre/Form has been used. A considerable improvement may only prove possible after the database itself is updated. To be fairt, the geographical names ‘Warszawa’ and ‘Polska’ are, for obvious reasons, extreme examples in the Polish library database.


The presentation of bibliographies in chosen countries was a subject of a note by Lucyna Szaniawska entitled Polska ‘Bibliografia Dokumentów Kartograficznych’ na tle wybranych bibliografii w innych krajach europejskich [= Bibliography of Cartographic Materials in comparison with the chosen bibliographies in the European countries], in: ‘Polish Cartographical Review’, Vol. 38, 2006, No. 38, No. 4, p. 326–329.



i. In the West

Catalogues of manuscripts and bibliographies of printed works on Iran compiled by scholars in Europe (including Russia) and North America are the focus here. Description by others of Iranian materials in Western collections or published in Western languages will also be considered.

1. Catalogues.

European interest in Iranian bibliography was awakened in the 16th and early 17th centuries, when manuscripts were brought to the West in ever-increasing numbers and became much sought after by humanists engaged in Oriental studies. Many manuscripts written in Persian found their way into the libraries of princes, universities, and individual scholars. The beginnings of Western collections during this period can be reconstructed from handwritten inventories, auction catalogues, and other contempo­rary sources. One example is the catalogue by the French mathematician Pierre Gassendi of rare books brought from the East by the Dutch Orientalist Jacobus Golius, which was published in 1630. Most of the manuscripts in this list can still be identified among the earliest acquisitions of the University of Leiden library (Wit­kam, p. 54). Early inventories of manuscripts from the Middle East can also be found in general library catalogues like those published by the University of Leiden library (1674, 1716; cf. Drewes et al., pp. 33-35) and the Bibliothèque du Roi in Paris (1739; cf. Blochet). In 1787 Joannes Uri published the first volume of a special catalogue of the Oriental manuscripts in the Bodleian Library, Oxford (Bibliothecae Bodleianae Codicum Manuscriptorum Orientalium . . . Catalogus . . ., pt. 1: Codices Manuscripti Arabici). (For the formation of the oldest collections in the Biblioteca Vaticana, see Levi della Vida).

In the 19th century, though it remained more common for Persian manuscripts to be catalogued with those in other Eastern languages (usually Arabic, Turkish, Pashto, and Hindustani) in comprehensive works, a few separate catalogues of Persian manuscripts also began to appear. This development was partly the result of colonial expansion, during which Persian manuscripts began to arrive in the West in greater numbers; naturally libraries in the British isles benefited most from this situation (see, for instance, Charles Rieu’s account of the growth of the Persian collection in the British Museum). Furthermore, careful description came to be recognized as a necessary prerequisite for properly documented studies of Eastern civilizations. Catalogues thus developed from mere inventories into sophisticated bibliographical tools, many of which contained discussions of basic questions in the history of Persian literature. The publication of bibliographical and biographical sources also made identification of writers and works easier; especially important were editions published by Gustav Flügel of Ḥājī Ḵalīfa’s Kašf al-ẓonūn and Ebn al-Nadīm’s Ketāb al-fehrest. Persian taḏkeras (biographical compendia) were brought to the notice of Western scholars by Nathaniel Bland, Hermann Ethé, and others. Outstanding 19th-­century examples of the descriptive treatment of Persian manuscripts are the catalogues of the Austrian Hof­bibliothek by Flügel (Die arabischen, persischen und türkischen Handschriften der kaiserlich-königlichen Hof­bibliothek zu Wien, 3 vols., Vienna, 1865-67), the British Museum by Rieu (Catalogue of the Persian Manuscripts in the British Museum, 3 vols. and suppl., London, 1879­-95, repr. London, 1966, 1968), the Prussian Königliche

Bibliothek by Wilhelm Pertsch (Die Handschriften-Verzeichnisse der königlichen Bibliothek zu Berlin IV: Verzeichniss der persischen Handschriften, Berlin, 1888), the Bodleian Library by Eduard Sachau and Ethé (Catalogue of the Persian, Turkish, Hindustânî and Pushtû Manuscripts in the Bodleian Library I, Oxford, 1889), and the India Office library in London by Ethé (Catalogue of the Persian Manuscripts in the Library of the India Office I, London, 1903). Descriptions of collections in a number of other European cities were also published: Othmar Frank, Ueber die morgenländischen Handschriften der königlichen Hof- and Central-­Bibliothek in München (Munich, 1814); J. Aumer, Die persischen Handschriften der königlichen Hof- und Staatsbibliothek in München (Munich, 1866); Heinrich O. Fleischer, Catalogus Codicum Manuscriptorum Orientalium Bibliothecae Regiae Dresdensis (Leipzig, 1831); Fleischer, Catalogus Librorum Manuscriptorum qui in Bibliotheca Senatoria Civitatis Lipsiensis Asservantur (Grimma, 1838); Heinrich Ewald, Verzeich­niss der orientalischen Handschriften der Universitäts-­Bibliothek zu Tübingen (Tübingen, 1839); Pertsch, Die orientalischen Handschriften der herzoglichen Bibliothek zu Gotha. Erster Teil. Die persischen Handschriften (Vienna, 1859); Albrecht Krafft, Die arabischen, persi­schen and türkischen Handschriften der K. K. Orientali­schen Akademie zu Wien (Vienna, 1842); Carl Johan Tornberg, Codices Arabici, Persici et Turcici Biblio­thecae Regiae Universitatis Upsaliensis (Uppsala, 1849); Tornberg, Codices Orientales Bibliothecae Regiae Uni­versitatis Lundensis (1 vol., Lund, 1850; supplement, Lund, 1853); Reinhard P. A. Dozy, Pieter de Jong, Michael J. de Goeje, and Martinus Th. Houtsma, Catalogus Codicum Orientalium Bibliothecae Academiae Lugduno Batavae (6 vols., Leiden, 1851-77; see volume V for collections in other Dutch cities); August F. Mehren, Codices Orientales Bibliothecae Regiae Havniensis III: Codices Persici, Turcici, Hindustanici Variique Alii . . . (Copenhagen, 1857); P. de Jong, Cata­logus Codicum Orientalium Bibliothecae Academiae Regiae Scientiarum (Leiden, 1862); Bernhard Dorn, Die Sammlung von morgenländischen Handschriften, welche die kaiserliche öffentliche Bibliothek zu St. Petersburg im Jahre 1864 von Hrn. v. Chanykov erworben hat (St. Petersburg, 1865); and Victor Rosen, Les manuscrits persans de l’Institut des Langues Orientales (du Ministère des Affaires Étrangères) décrits par le Baron Victor Rosen (St. Petersburg, 1886); and Edward G. Browne, A Catalogue of the Persian Manuscripts in the Library of the University of Cambridge (Cambridge, 1896).

These activities continued into the present century, though only a few of the most important contributions can be mentioned here: The Persian manuscripts in the Bibliothèque Nationale were described by Edgar Blo­chet (Bibliothèque Nationale. Catalogue des manuscrits persans, 4 vols., Paris, 1905-34), the personal collection of E. G. Browne by Browne and Reynold A. Nicholson (A Descriptive Catalogue of the Oriental MSS. Belonging to the Late E. G. Browne, Cambridge, 1932), the Biblioteca Vaticana by Ettore Rossi (Elenco dei manoscritti persiani della Biblioteca Vaticana, Vatican City, 1948), and The Chester Beatty Library by James V. S. Wilkinson, Arthur J. Arberry and others (A Catalogue of the Persian Manuscripts and Miniatures, 3 vols., Dublin, 1959-62). The catalogues of the Bodleian Library were brought up to date by A. F. L. Beeston (Catalogue of the Persian, Turkish, Hindustânî and Pushtû Manuscripts in the Bodleian Library III: Additional Persian Manuscripts, Oxford, 1954), that of the Cambridge libraries by Browne (A Supplementary Hand-list of the Muhammadan Manuscripts in the Libraries of the University and Colleges of Cambridge, Cambridge, 1922) and Arberry (A Second Supplementary Hand-list of the Muhammadan Manuscripts in the University and Colleges of Cambridge, Cambridge, 1952), and that of the British Museum by G. M. Meredith-­Owens (Handlist of Persian Manuscripts, 1895-1966, London, 1968). After World War II work on the Persian collections in the libraries of Leningrad was resumed by N. D. Miklukho-Maklaĭ and his colleagues (Opisanie persidskikh i tadzhikskikh rukopiseĭ Instituta Vostokove­deniya (Narodov Azii), 8 vols. to date, Moscow and Leningrad, 1955-), O. F. Akimushkin and others (Per­sidskie i tadzhikskie rukopisi Instituta Narodov Azii. Kratkiĭ alfavitnyĭ katalog, 2 vols., Moscow, 1964), and A. T. Tagirdzhanov, Opisanie tadzhikskikh i persidskikh rukopiseĭ Vostochnogo otdela Biblioteki LGU (I, Lenin­grad, 1962), and idem, Spisok tadzhikskikh, persidskikh i tyurkskikh rukopiseĭ Vostochnogo otdela Biblioteki LGU (Leningrad and Moscow, 1967). In Germany volumes devoted to Persian manuscripts have been published in the union catalogue Verzeichnis der orientalischen Handschriften in Deutschland, two of them have been compiled respectively by Wilhelm Eilers and Wilhelm Heinz (vol. XIV, pt. 1, Wiesbaden, 1968) and Soheila Divshali and Paul Luft (vol. XIV, pt. 2, Wiesbaden, 1980). In the United States catalogues of Persian manuscripts were published by A. V. Williams Jackson and Abraham Yuhannan (A Catalogue of the Collection of Persian Manuscripts . . . Presented to the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, by Alexander Smith Cochran, New York, 1914), Nicholas N. Mar­tinovitch (A Catalogue of Turkish and Persian Manuscripts Belonging to Robert Garrett and Deposited in the Princeton University Library, Princeton, 1926), Mohamed E. Moghadam and Yahya Armajani (Descriptive Catalog of the Garrett Collection of Persian, Turkish and Indic Manuscripts . . .,Princeton and London, 1939), and Muhammed A. Simsar (Oriental Manuscripts of the John Frederick Lewis Collection in the Free Library of Philadelphia,Philadelphia, 1937).

Subject catalogues of Persian manuscripts have been comparatively rare, but an unfinished project undertaken by Henry M. Elliot to inventory the Persian historiography of India (Bibliographical Index to the Historians of Muhammadan India, vol. 1, Calcutta, 1850) and William H. Morley’s catalogue of historical works in the library of the Royal Asiatic Society (A Descriptive Catalogue of the Historical Manuscripts in the Arabic and Persian Languages . . . , London, 1854) should be mentioned. Adolf Fonahn listed Persian sources for the history of medical science (Zur Quellenkunde der persischen Medizin, Leipzig, 1910), and more recently Lutz Richter-Bernburg has published PersianMedical Manuscripts at the University of California, Los Angeles (Malibu, 1978). A catalogue of the texts of Persian passion plays donated by Enrico Cerulli to the Vatican Library was compiled by Rossi and Alessandro Bombaci (Elenco di drammi religiosi persiani (Fondo mss. Vaticani Cerulli), Vatican City, 1961).

Illustrated manuscripts have received special treatment in catalogues. A pioneering work in this genre was the catalogue of the University of Istanbul library by Feluni Edhem and Ivan Stchoukine (Les manuscrits orientaux illustrés de la Bibliothèque de l’Université de Stamboul, Paris, 1933). Wilkinson and his colleagues described the miniatures in the Chester Beatty Library (see above). Basil W. Robinson devoted much attention to problems in the history of style and iconography in his descriptions of illustrated manuscripts in three major British libraries: A Descriptive Catalogue of the Persian Paintings in the Bodleian Library (Oxford, 1958), Persian Paintings in the India Office Library (London, 1976), and Persian Paintings in the John Rylands Library (London, 1980). The union catalogue of illustrated manuscripts in Germany was prepared by Barbara Flemming, P. Luft, and Hanna Sohrweide under the guidance of Stchoukine (Verzeichnis XVI, Wiesbaden, 1971). The catalogue of illustrated manu­scripts in the British Library and the British Museum by Norah M. Titley (Miniatures from Persian Manuscripts, London, 1977) also contains an extensive subject index to the miniatures described. The most recent major contribution to this branch of Persian bibliography is the description of illustrated manuscripts in the Aus­trian Nationalbibliothek by Dorothea Duda (Islami­sche illuminierte Handschriften der österreichischen Nationalbibliothek in Wien, Vienna, 1983).

Western scholars have also taken part in exploration of collections in Eastern countries. Aloys Sprenger’s description of poetry manuscripts in Lucknow (Catalogue of the Library of the King of Oudh, Calcutta, 1854) set an example for the cataloguing of Persian materials in libraries on the Indian subcontinent. The collections of the Asiatic Society of Bengal were treated by Vladimir Ivanow in several volumes (Concise De­scriptive Catalogue of the Persian Manuscripts in the Collection of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, Calcutta, 1924; First Supplement, Calcutta, 1927; Second Supplement, Calcutta, 1928; Concise Descriptive Catalogue of the Persian Manuscripts in the Curzon Collection, Asia­tic Society of Bengal, Calcutta, 1926). Ivanow also made a pioneering survey of the literary heritage of the Ismaʿili community in India (A Guide to Ismaili Litera­ture, London, 1933; rev. ed., Tehran, 1963). Toward the end of the 19th century, Paul Horn made an initial survey of the rich holdings of Persian manuscripts in the libraries of Istanbul (“Persische Handschriften in Con­stantinopel,” ZDMG 54, 1900, pp. 275-332, 475-509). After World War I, when Turkish libraries became more accessible to European scholars, Hellmut Ritter, who lived many years in Istanbul, was able to investi­gate their collections thoroughly. He generously shared his great bibliographical knowledge with other scholars, notably Nicholson, for his edition of Maṯnawī-e maʿnawī, and Charles A. Storey. Ritter also made known a great number of manuscripts in a series of articles entitled “Philologica,” which appeared in Der Islam (1928-42) and Oriens (1948-61). Most of these articles were devoted to the works of mystical writers (Anṣārī, the Sohravardīs, writers on the theory of love) and poets (Sanāʾī, Jalāl-al-Dīn Rūmī and his circle, ʿAṭṭār). Specialized studies on historical works in Persian located in Istanbul were carried out by Felix Tauer (“Les manuscrits persans historiques des biblio­thèques de Stamboul,” Archív orientální 3, 1931, pp. 87-­118, 303-26, 462-91; 4, 1932, pp. 92-107, 193-207). Max Krause catalogued mathematical texts (Stambuler Handschriften islamischer Mathematiker, Berlin, 1936) and Fritz Meier Sufi literature (“Stambuler Handschriften dreier persischer Mystiker,” Der Islam 24, 1937, pp. 1-39). With the support of UNESCO, Ritter initiated a comprehensive survey of manuscripts containing Persian poetry in the libraries of Istanbul. After publi­cation of the first results by Herbert W. Duda (“Die Persischen Dichterhandschriften der Sammlung Esʿad Efendi zu Istanbul,” Der Islam 39, 1964, pp. 38-70) and Ahmed Ateş (Istanbul kütüphanelerinde Farsça manzum eserler I, Istanbul, 1968), this project was discontinued. Serge de Laugier de Beaurecueil compiled a volume on Oriental manuscripts kept in several libraries in Kabul and Herat (Manuscrits d’Afghanistan, Cairo, 1964).

During the 19th century lithographed editions were issued in countries where Persian literature was cultivated. They are often as important to philological research as are manuscripts from the same period. Many of these editions are listed in Edward Edwards, A Catalogue of the Persian Printed Books in the British Museum (London, 1922); in Arberry, Catalogue of the India Office Library II, pt. 6: Persian Books (London, 1937); and in O. P. Shcheglova, Katalog litografirovannykh knig na persidskom yazyke v sobranii Lenin­gradskogo otdeleniya Instituta Vostokovedeniya AN SSSR (Moscow, 1975).

Periodicals published in Iran during the years of the Constitutional Revolution were the subject of Browne’s The Press and Poetry of Modern Persia (Cambridge, 1914). A more comprehensive survey of such material is now available in Union Catalogue of Persian Serials and Newspapers in British Libraries, edited by Ursula Sims-Williams (London, 1985). During the last decade Wolf­gang H. Behn has published several bibliographies of political literature originating in opposition groups outside Iran since 1962, as well as inside Iran during the Islamic Revolution: The Iranian Opposition in Exile (Wiesbaden, 1979), Islamic Revolution or Revolutionary Islam in Iran (Berlin, 1980), Power and Reaction in Iran (Berlin, 1981, a supplement to the preceding volumes), The End of a Revolution. A Bibliographical Postscript to the Islamic Revolution in Iran (Berlin, 1984), and, together with Willem Floor, Twenty Years of Iranian Power Struggle (on political periodicals published in 1962-81). These bibliographies include selective indi­cations of where materials can be located. The German Dokumentationsdienst Moderner Orient has collected data on periodicals in Zeitschriftenverzeichnis moderner Orient (Hamburg, 1979). Periodical literature on mod­ern developments in Iran and Afghanistan is also included within the scope of the historical bibliography The Middle East in Conflict (Santa Barbara, 1985).

Although the sheer quantity of Persian printed books defies any attempt at an exhaustive inventory, catalogues of books found in single libraries or groups of libraries are still being compiled. The Harvard University Library reproduced its file cards in Catalogue of Arabic, Persian and Ottoman Turkish Books (Cambridge, Mass., 1968), and the Bibliothèque Nationale, Paris, devoted a section of Catalogue général des livres imprimés (Paris, 1978, ser. 2, IV) to works in Arabic and Persian. Bibliographie des Iran (Vienna, 1985) by R. Pananka is based on the collections in the Austrian Nationalbibliothek and the Akademie der Wissenschaften in Vienna.

In comparison to the extensive Persian holdings, the number of manuscripts in other Iranian languages in Western libraries is rather small. There are only a few specialized catalogues. Mention should be made of Christian Bartholomae, Die Zendhandschriften der königlichen Hof- und Staatsbibliothek in München (Munich, 1915); Arthur Christensen, Codices Avestici et Pahlavici Bibliothecae Universitatis Hafniensis (12 vols. of facsim­iles, Copenhagen, 1931-44); Olaf Hansen, Die mittel­persischen Papyri der Papyrussammlung der Staatlichen Museen zu Berlin (Berlin, 1938); Mary Boyce, A Catalogue of the Iranian Manuscripts in Manichaean Script in the German Turfan Collection (Berlin, 1960); and Corpus Inscriptionum Iranicarum (London and Moscow, in progress since 1955). For other inventories of pre-Islamic texts J. D. Pearson (1975) and similar bibliographical compilations should be consulted.

Kurdish manuscripts in the important Leningrad collections were described by M. B. Rudenko (Opisanie kurdskikh rukopiseĭ Leningradskikh sobraniĭ, Moscow, 1961) and those in Germany by Kamal Fuad (Verzeichnis XXX, Wiesbaden, 1970). J. F. Blumhardt and D. N. MacKenzie, Catalogue of Pashto Manuscripts in the Libraries of the British Isles (London, 1965), and V. L. Kushev, Opisanie rukopiseĭ na yazyke Pashto Instituta Vostokovedeniya (Moscow, 1976) are devoted to Pashto manuscripts.

A general introduction to the collections of manuscripts referred to above can be found in Pearson (1971). No complete list of published catalogues of Persian manuscripts has yet been compiled, but extensive lists have been drawn up by Īraj Afšār, Ketāb-šenāsī-e fehresthā-ye nosḵahā-ye ḵaṭṭī-e fārsī, and by Yuri Bregel in his translation of C. A. Storey, Persian Literature. A Bio-Bibliographical Survey (I, pp. 55-96); see also the selective list in L. P. Elwell-Sutton, Bibliographical Guide to Iran (pp. 20-39).

2. Bibliographies.

Bibliography of secondary works. Early bibliographers like J. T. Zenker and M. Schwab could still attempt comprehensive thematic inventories of Western studies on Iran. These works, if supplemented by the abundant bibliographical references given in Grundriss der iranischen Philologie, which was edited by Wilhelm Geiger and Ernst Kuhn (Stuttgart, 1891-1904), provide a fairly complete survey of such studies up to the end of the 19th century. Such undertakings are not feasible for the 20th century, however. A. T. Wilson, in A Bibliogra­phy of Persia (Oxford, 1930) aimed only at providing a selective alphabetical list of original works in European tongues and standard translations of Persian books. This work was followed by various lists of Western books on Iran, made for specific practical purposes and thus of limited scope, for example, Hafez F. Farman, Iran. A Selected and Annotated Bibliography (Washing­ton, D.C., 1951), the bibliography at the end of Elwell-­Sutton, A Guide to Iranian Area Study (Ann Arbor, 1952), and the sections on Iran contributed by J. A. Boyle and P. W. Avery to Middle East and Islam. A Bibliographical Introduction, edited by D. Hopwood and D. Grimwood-Jones (Zug, 1972). The Bibliograph­ical Guide to Iran, edited for the British Middle East Library Committee by Elwell-Sutton, was prepared by a group of specialists, each responsible for a different field of Iranian studies. Nevertheless, the emphasis in this work was on introducing the available literature: “It does not seek to be an exhaustive bibliography . . . but rather to list the most useful and significant books and articles in each of the fields with which it deals, and as far as possible to indicate the scope and usefulness of each” (p. xiv).

Comprehensiveness is still the goal of most national bibliographies. Publications in French were inventoried by M. Saba (Bibliographie de l’Iran, Paris, 1936; repr. Tehran, 1951, 1966), and A. Abolhamd and N. Pakdaman (Bibliographie française de civilisation iranienne, 3 vols., Tehran, 1971-74). Soviet studies were listed by A. K. Sverchevskaya (Bibliografiya Irana. Literatura na russkom yazyke (1917-1965), Moscow, 1967). The Italian tradition of Iranian studies, which began as early as the fifteenth century, has been surveyed in A. M. Piemontese, Bibliografia italiana dell’Iran (1462-1982), (Naples, 1982).

During the 1920s Storey embarked upon a synthesis of all published data on literature in Persian. The progress that had previously been made in cataloguing Western collections had convinced him that the time for such a project had arrived. In the course of his work, however, it became clear that Europeans still knew little about important manuscript collections in the East. Despite unavoidable lacunae, his Persian Literature must be regarded as one of the great achievements in Persian bibliography, remarkable for both its accuracy and its detail. The parts of the work that Storey was able to finish before his death in 1967 deal with Koranic studies, history, biography, and the exact sciences. For many years V. Minorsky reviewed current studies on Iranian history and geography in papers addressed to the International Congress of Orientalists, which were published in Acta Orientalia (“Les études historiques et géographiques sur la Perse depuis 1900,” AO 10, 1932, pp. 278-93; “Les études historiques et géographiques sur la Perse,” AO 16, 1937, pp. 49-58; “Les études historiques sur la Perse depuis 1935,” AO 21, 1951, pp. 108-23; “Etudes géographiques et historiques sur la Perse,” AO 22, 1957, pp. 105-17). A rich bibliography of primary sources and secondary works on the literatures of Iran is contained in History of Iranian Literature by Jan Rypka and others (Dordrecht, 1968, pp. 753-861). The older literature on Iranian art is covered by bibliographies in the volumes 15 and 16 of A Survey of Persian Art, both compiled by Kurt Erdmann. For the Islamic period, A Bibliography of the Architecture, Arts and Crafts of Islam, begun by K. A. C. Creswell and continued by Pearson (Cairo, 1961; supplements 1971, 1984), is the most comprehensive source. Publications on pre-Islamic archeology are recorded and annotated in Louis Vanden Berghe, Bibliographie analytique de l’archéologie de l’Iran ancien (Leiden, 1979); idem and E. Haerinck, Supplément I: 1978-1980 (1981); Supplément II: 1981-1985 (1987).

Several regional bibliographies have been devoted to the land and peoples of contemporary Iran and Afghanistan. Geographical and anthropological studies on modern Iran have been gathered in Eckart Ehlers, Iran, Bibliographischer Forschungsbericht. Mit Kommentaren und Annotationen (Munich, 1980), and A. Dürkoop and others, Bibliographie der geologischen Literatur des Iran bis 1978 (Bochum, 1982). Western studies on Afghanistan are covered in Bibliographie de l’Afghanistan (Paris, 1947); in Bibliographie der Afghanistan-Literatur 1945-­1967 (Hamburg, 1968-69), works in Oriental languages are also included. Other works to be consulted are J. M. Hanifi, Annotated Bibliography of Afghanistan (New Haven, 1982), and W. Keith and W. McLachlan, A Bibliography of Afghanistan. A Working Bibliography of Materials on Afghanistan with Special Reference to Economic and Social Change in the Twentieth Century (Cambridge, 1983). A very comprehensive repertory of Kurdish studies is Silvio van Rooy and Kees Tamboer, International Society of Kurdistan’s Kurdish Bibliography (Amsterdam, 1968); Russian Kurdish studies have been covered in Zh. S. Musaelyan and K. Kur­doev, Bibliografiya po kurdovedeniyu (Moscow, 1963).

Serial bibliographies. Since 1978 Abstracta Iranica, published as an annual supplement to the French journal Studia Iranica under the direction of C.-H. de Fouchécour, has become the primary medium of current bibliography, “covering Iran, Afghanistan, and all the areas relevant to Iranian culture at any point of time.” The annotation of the entries varies from brief summaries to succinct reviews. An analytical index of the volumes 1978-82 has also been published. Pearson’s The Quarterly Index Islamicus. Current Books, Articles and Papers on Islamic Studies can also be consulted; in 1977, it replaced Index Islamicus, which covered only articles and papers. Among learned periodicals Orientalische Literaturzeitung (Berlin), Bibliotheca Orientalis (Leiden), and Middle East Journal (Washington, D.C.) are devoted to reviews and listings of newly published books. A welcome addition is the annual Islamic Book Review Index, which began publication in 1982 in Berlin; it is compiled by W. Behn.

Although existing channels for dissemination of information on published materials seem adequate, the same cannot be said about manuscript sources. Foremost on the list of desiderata is a continuation of Storey’s magnum opus. In the partial Russian translation by Bregel, which covers only 432 pages of the original work, the text has been expanded to 1,314 pages, showing how many additions were required to bring this essential research tool up to date in 1972. The Royal Asiatic Society has published three further parts of the materials left unfinished by Storey (Leiden, 1971­-84), but large sections of Persian literature remain completely uncovered. Borshchevsky and Bregel have made valuable suggestions for a continuation of the Survey, based on a detailed analysis of Storey’s work and the present requirements of Persian scholarship. Implementation of their proposals would require an international effort, which in present circumstances would be difficult to organize. A new approach is embodied in Onomasticon of Persian literature, the initiative for which was undertaken by M. N. Osmanov in 1983. At present this project is being conducted primarily in the Soviet Union, though scholars in Italy are also participating. The questionnaire used includes bibliographical data.



Ī. Afšār, Ketāb-šenāsī-e fehresthā-ye nosḵahā-ye ḵaṭṭī-e fārsī/Bibliographie des catalogues des manuscrits persans, Tehran, 1337 Š./1958.

A. L. F. Beeston, “The Oriental Manuscript Collections of the Bodleian Library,” Bodleian Library Record 5/2, 1954, pp. 73-79.

Bio-bibliographies de 134 savants, Acta Iranica 20, Tehran, 1979.

E. Blochet, “Avertissement,” Catalogue des manuscrits turcs I, Paris, 1932, pp. v-viii.

Yu. E. Borshchevsky and Yu. E. Bregel, “The Preparation of a Bio­-Bibliographical Survey of Persian Literature,” IJMES 3, 1972, pp. 169-86.

F. Diba, Persian Bibliog­raphy. Catalogue of the Library of Books and Periodicals in Western Languages on Persia (Iran) in the Diba Collection, London, 1981.

G. W. J. Drewes et al., Levinus Warner and His Legacy, Leiden, 1970.

L. P. Elwell-Sutton, ed., Bibliographical Guide to Iran. The Middle East Library Committee Guide, Brighton and Totowa, N.J., 1983.

Idem, “Onomas­ticon of Persian Literature,” British Society for Middle Eastern Studies Bulletin 10/1, 1983, pp. 95-99.

J. Gabeau-Thonet, “Notes sur les ouvrages bibliographiques publiés pendant ces deux derniers siècles et relatifs aux Arabes, Persans et Turcs,” Actes du XXe Congrès des Orientalistes (Bruxelles 1938), Louvain, 1940.

P. Gassendi, Catalogus rarorum librorum, quos ex Oriente nuper advexit et in publica bibliotheca inclytae Leydensis Academiae deposuiṭ . . . Iacobus Golius, Paris, 1630.

G. Levi della Vida, Ricerche sulla formazione del più antico fondo dei manoscritti orientali della Bibliotheca Vaticana, Vatican City, 1939.

Y. M. Nawabi, A Bibliography of Iran. A Catalogue of Books and Articles on Iranian Subjects, Mainly in European Languages, 6 vols., Tehran, 1969-84.

M. N. Osmanov, “Per un reper­torio enciclopedico (onomasticon) della letteratura persiana,” Contributi alla storia dell’orientalismo, ed. G. R. Franci, Bologna, 1985, pp. 27-33.

J. D. Pear­son, ed., A Bibliography of Pre-Islamic Persia, Lon­don, 1975.

Idem, Oriental and Asian Bibliography, London, 1966. Idem, Oriental Manuscripts in Europe and North America. A Survey, Zug, 1971.

M. Pistoso, “Problemi e prospettive dell’Onomasticon della letteratura persiana,” Studi orientali e linguistici 3, 1986, pp. 79-97.

C. Rieu, “Extent, Origin, and Growth of the Persian Collection,” Catalogue of the Persian Manuscripts in the British Museum III, London, 1883, pp. x-xxviii.

M. Schwab, Bibliographie de la Perse, Paris, 1875. K. Schwarz, Der Vordere Orient in den Hochschulschriften Deutschlands, Österreichs und der Schweiz, Freiburg, 1980.

P. Sluglett, Theses on Islam, the Middle East and North Africa 1880-1978, Accepted by Universities in the United Kingdom and Ireland, London, 1983.

C. A. Storey, Persian Litera­ture. A Bio-Bibliographical Survey, pt. 1, i-iii, London and Leiden, 1927-84.

Idem and Yu. E. Bregel, Persidskaya literatura, bio-bibliograficheskiĭ obzor, 3 vols., Moscow, 1972.

J. J. Witkam, Jacobus Golius (1596-1667) en zijn handschriften, Leiden, 1980.

J. T. Zenker, Bibliotheca Orientalis. Manuel de bibliographie orientale, 2 vols., Leipzig, 1846-61.

(J. T. P. de Bruijn)

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Vol. IV, Fasc. 2, pp. 214-219

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